Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI), (Part ΙΙ)
Buying and Selling Stocks
1. Choose a stockbroker
In choosing a broker, you should check if that broker (person or corporation) is a member in good standing at the Tehran Stock Exchange. A complete listing of the TSE member-brokers can be found in various publications or from the TSE Membership Department. It is important that you trust your broker and that you are satisfied with the services it provides for you. Brokerage services include market reports, advice regarding the stock selection and timing of purchases and sales, trade executions, on time delivery of important documents – such as confirmation receipts – and other trading-related activities that their clients may require.
2. Open a brokerage account
Once the investor has chosen his brokerage firm, a brokerage account has to be opened. This account allows the client to perform stock transactions (buy and sell shares) any time – similar to a bank account which enables you to deposit, transfer and withdraw money. Opening a brokerage account is relatively easy to accomplish and takes no longer than opening a bank account. A specimen signature card needs to be filled out, containing the: name, address (professional and private), telephone number(s), and most importantly, the client’s signature. Frequently, bank and professional references have to be submitted.
Once an account has been opened, the client may buy or sell immediately according to the trading instructions between the investor and broker. Trading instruction can vary depending on the investors’ objective – whether it is short-term or long-term, minimum or maximum value of trades (trading limit), etc. All transactions are handled confidentially and the broker will not reveal to any person the details of any purchases or sales done for his client.
3. Place your order with your broker
After opening the account, a trader will be assigned to the investor. A trader is a licensed salesman who is authorized to buy and sell securities at the TSE. The assigned trader will be your contact person for all the transactions. He/she will receive your order, most likely by telephone (unless arrangements are made), and will execute the order through the trading terminal connected to the main system of the Exchange. Thus, when placing an order to buy or sell, you have to call your trader and give the details of your order. The trader needs to know the following specifications: buy or sell order, which stock to buy or sell, the number of shares to buy or sell, and preferably also the bid price (when buying) or asked price (when selling).
4. Settle your transaction
Buying and selling transactions are settled by book-entry. This means the ownership of shares and cash is transferred electronically to the brokerage account, without the stock certificates and cash being handed over physically. The account is credited when buying shares, and debited in the case of selling shares. Tehran Stock Exchange is launching the paperless or scriptless trading that result to eliminating the physical handover of stock certificates when buying or selling.
The system replaces the scrip-based system where stock certificates are handed over for transfer to the next owner. Instead, stock certificates are simply immobilized and kept in a safe place – Central Securities Depository of Iran, Inc. The book-entry system clearly advantages over the paper-based system. It has dramatically reduced paper work, facilitated the trading and eliminated the loss or forgery of shares.
Currently the TSE settles trades on T+3, i.e., four days after the transaction date. Therefore, payments and/or securities must be delivered to your broker on trading day. Be sure to always verify the settlement deadline with your broker for future transactions.
TSE is the full member of WFE (Since 1992) and also a member and one of the founders of FEAS (Sincec1995) and also a subscriber of International corporate governance network (ICGN). TSE also is an active participant of OIC Members’ Stock Exchange Forum.
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